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Behind the Numbers

Jun 10, 2020 | Private Jet Travel, SOAR Magazine

Jet Linx is proud to hold a Part 135 certificate and to hold our operations to the most stringent standards for all flights.


The Federal Aviation Administration publishes regulations that provide general operating and flight rules; these mandates are divided into different sections (or ‘Parts’) governing many types of aircraft.

To generalize, Part 91 refers to non-commercial operations; Part 121 is reserved for major commercial airlines; Part 135 governs commercial charter operators such as Jet Linx; and Part 134.5 is an informal reference to illegal charter operations, a very unsafe and frowned-upon practice in the aviation industry.

The FAA believes the public has a right to expect that people in the business of providing transportation will be especially careful in doing so. All operators must earn the certificate that designates which Part FAA regulations they must follow. Earning a certification for Part 121 and Part 135 operations requires major investments of time and talent. To receive payment for air transportation, you must hold one of these certificates from the FAA and the operator also needs approval from the Department of Transportation. Operations that fall outside of these categories carry additional risk and potential pitfalls.

How do you avoid “Part 134.5” illegal charter? Ask the right questions. Focus on experience, safety, security, maintenance and insurance. Ask for a copy of the insurance certificate and the air carrier operator certificate number; these are significant evidence of a legal Charter operator. Most often, if the price of a chartered flight seems too good to be true, there is something amiss.

Part 91



  • Part 91 criteria govern small airplane pilots, from weekend enthusiasts to crop-dusters.
  • Part 91 offers the least restrictive regulations. For example, a Part 91 operator can initiate an instrument approach when the weather is below the approach minimums.
  • The Pilot-in-Command is the party directly responsible for an aircraft being operated. During an emergency, a pilot may deviate from any regulation contained within Part 91 to the extent required to handle the emergency.
  • You can be paid for your flights in Part 91, but you are not allowed to fly passengers for hire.
  • Commercial operators flying solely under Part 91 often choose to do so because of the cost associated with obtaining a certificate for Part 121 or Part 135.
  • Under Part 91, there are no formal rest requirements for pilots.
  • Passenger I.D. is not normally required for trips in the U.S.

Part 134.5



  • Part 134.5 operations is the informal term for the practice of selling charter flights on Part 91 airplanes with Part 91 flight crews. Operators who take these steps are knowingly breaking the law and putting passengers in danger.
  • Part 134.5 operators often price their charters far below what any Part 135 operator can offer, due to lower overhead costs associated with Part 91 operations.
  • Many consumers board Part 134.5 flights unknowingly due to unethical brokers and operators willing to take unnecessary risk for monetary gains.
  • Part 134.5 aircraft are often not maintained adequately, have less experienced crews and provide far less insurance.
  • Part 134.5 operators do not charge a Federal Excise Tax to consumers, whereas legal operators are required to charge passengers. This is an easy way to identify an illegal charter operator.

Part 135



  • Part 135 operations have very detailed and strict operational requirements, having much higher standard of safety requirements than Part 91 operated aircraft.
  • For a 135 certificate, the applicant must adhere to a nearly endless list of mandates which include increased maintenance intervals, higher pilot training requirements, higher crew-rest requirements, longer runway requirements, greater fuel reserve requirements, higher insurance requirements and more in-depth safety planning.
  • Pilots also go through more training than Part 91 to obtain their license, and there are stringent drug and alcohol testing requirements.
  • Pilot fatigue is also closely monitored with rest requirements.
  • Only with a Part 135 certificate can pilots fly passengers or cargo for “compensation or hire.”
  • Part 135 means the certificate holder, not the aircraft owner (Part 91), is responsible for safe operations.